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394        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

be much passivity, and even, it may be, active resistance and
evasion on the part of the child; but happily he learns easily
under pressure. Never again will there be such susceptibility to
drill and discipline, such plasticity to habituation, or such ready
adjustment to new conditions. It is the age of external and
mechanical training, Reading, writing, drawing, manual training,
musical technique, foreign tongues and their pronunciation, the
manipulation of numbers and of geometrical elements, and
many kinds of skill have now their golden hour, and if it passes
unimproved they can never be acquired later without a heavy
handicap of disadvantage and loss. These necessities may be
bad for the health of body, sense, mind, as well as for morals,
and pedagogic art consists in breaking the child into them be-
times as intensively and as quickly as possible with minimal
strain and with the least amount of explanation or coquetting for
natural interest.*

It is not possible to follow Dr. Hall further in his account
of the ideal school as based on child study. But enough has
been said to indicate with what freshness and wisdom he has
brought the evolutionary principle of recapitulation to bear on the
practical work of education.

6. PROFESSOR JOHN DEWEY AND THE EXPERIMENTAL
SCHOOL

John Dewey (b. 1859) has much in common with Dr. Hall.
The starting-point of their educational thought is the doctrine
of evolution as applied in child study, and the philosophy of
both men is, broadly speaking, pragmatic in its insistence on the
subordination of intellect to practical ends. There are differences,
however, not a few. Dewey, once the disciple of the English
idealists, is the more sober and the more subtle thinker. It
might almost be said that he is less a scientist and more a philo-
sopher. And his ideas on the practice of education, though quite
as revolutionary as Hall's, seem more in touch with the actualities
of life. It is characteristic of the difference between the two men
that whereas Hall's plans for an ideal school followed the working
out of his educational philosophy, Dewey's educational philosophy
* After Adolescence, pp. ix-xiii.